We wrote about some of the Envoy updates we’re most excited for this year on our blog.
In a real-world production system, many things can alter your service’s performance. HAProxy has the best performance for HTTP and is tied with Envoy for HTTPS. Here, you can see the round trip times from our load balancer to our backend. Traditionally, proxies have been configured using static configuration files. It had the highest throughput in terms of requests per second. Managing and observingL… From a base performance level, our requests per second tend to drop significantly, up to 30% in some cases. Additionally, we will be performing this test across two categories.
This makes sense because we are loading the backend more heavily so it should take longer to respond. This chart shows the latency percentile distribution of load balancer responses over HTTP by concurrency. Ambassador was designed from the get go for this L7, services-oriented world, with us deciding early on to build only for Kubernetes. During our tests, we collected the total requests per second, the latency distribution, and a number of successful (200) responses. To circumvent the limitations of NGINX open source, our friends at Yelp actually deployed HAProxy and NGINX together. It’s important to monitor changes in performance over time, particularly as demand increases or you make deployments or infrastructural changes. NGINX open source has a number of limitations, including limited observability and health checks. Integrations.
How-tos For example, v1.5 added SSL after four years. Benchmarking Envoy Proxy, HAProxy, and NGINX Performance on Kubernetes. Loggly also offers an opportunity to monitor key operational metrics that may be part of your team’s service level objectives (SLOs). It is also important to see the load balancer’s view of incoming requests that are being forwarded to a backend. However, this doesn’t tell the whole story. Let’s come up with a methodology for this test so that we have as many fair benchmarks as possible and a range of different information.
For our backend, we’re using NGINX serving the default static site that ships with it. Envoy came out as the overall winner in this benchmark. Also, each load balancer supports a different feature set that may be more important to your needs than latency or throughput, such as ease of dynamic configuration changes. In this case, the configuration will use static, hardcoded resources as defined by NGINX. We can see that the backend response time starts off low and increases as we increase the concurrency level. were not fully addressed until the end of 2017, he would not start an Envoy platform company, Envoy updates we’re most excited for this year, From Monolith to Service Mesh, via a Front Proxy — Learnings from stories of building the Envoy…, Why IT Ticketing Systems Don’t Work with Microservices, Verifying Service Mesh TLS in Kubernetes, Using ksniff and Wireshark, Distributed Tracing with Java “MicroDonuts”, Kubernetes and the Ambassador API Gateway, The Two Most Important Challenges with an API Gateway when Adopting Kubernetes, Centralized Authentication with Keycloak and Ambassador Edge Stack, Part 1: Incremental App Migration from VMs to Kubernetes — Routing Traffic Across Platforms &…. Stay tuned as we continue iterating on Ambassador! Sign up Here ». NGINX claims to be a high-performance reverse proxy and load balancer. This is an arbitrary number with the intent of helping ensure that there are enough requests to run to get meaningful data at higher concurrency levels. For this test, we will use a static configuration file, which looks like this: Traefik is a dynamic load balancer designed for ease of configuration, especially in dynamic environments. Testing HTTPS gives us an idea of the TLS termination performance for these different services. This graph shows the load test running at the 250 concurrency level with HAProxy, followed by a break, then the 500 concurrency level. The core network protocols that are used by these services are so-called “Layer 7” protocols, e.g., HTTP, HTTP/2, gRPC, Kafka, MongoDB, and so forth. HAProxy was initially released in 2006, when the Internet operated very differently than today. It claims to be built on a proxy and comes with support for HTTP/2, remote service discovery, advanced load balancing patterns such as circuit breakers and traffic shaping, and has a pluggable architecture that allows Envoy to be configured individually for each deployment. This means that concurrency is severely affected by choice of protocol. We loved the feature set of Envoy and the forward-thinking vision of the product. These protocols build on top of your typical transport layer protocols such as TCP.
These services need to communicate with each other over the network. We are testing five different load balancers, chosen in part for their current and historical popularity, feature set, and use in real-world environments. You configure NGINX using a configuration file that can be hot-reloaded, but the NGINX Plus commercial offering enables the use of API-based configuration as well as other features designed for large, enterprise environments.
Envoy's focus has been on API and dynamic configuration.
After the load tests, we generated a chart using the Loggly charting feature to see the HAProxy view of the time it took to hit our backend server during the course of the event: Loggly gives you the power to choose from several statistics like average or percentile. © 2020 SolarWinds Worldwide, LLC.
HAProxy is an open-source, microcode-optimized load balancer and claims to feature a , event-driven model. Unfortunately, though, since we wanted to make Ambassador open source, NGINX Plus was not an option for us.
Different configurations can optimize each of these load balancers, and different workloads can have different results. We ourselves had experienced the challenges of hitless reloads (being able to reload your configuration without restarting your proxy) which were not fully addressed until the end of 2017 despite epic hacks from folks like Joey at Yelp. We couldn’t be happier with our decision to build Ambassador on Envoy. The intent of these particular benchmarks is to show out-of-the-box configuration profiles without optimization, and outside of having a backend to another service, use the load balancer’s default configuration. It is based on the Go Programming Language, which encapsulates concurrency and parallelism features into the runtime to use all available resources on the system. Envoy vs nginx.
The CNCF provides an independent home to Envoy, insuring that the focus on building the best possible L7 proxy will remain unchanged. Description. Get started with sending logs to SolarWinds Loggly, analyze your logs, and create meaningful and relevant alerts for your load balancer’s anomalies and SLOs.
Pros & Cons. L4 load balancing prevents us from doing TLS termination, so we are skipping it for this test. It’s important when testing load balancers for your infrastructure that you perform a more real-world test for your services. it serves 25.03% of traffic of the top 1 million websites.
We focused on community because we wanted a vibrant community where we could contribute easily. Achieving the right balance of features, operator usability, and performance depends on the type of software you’re running, how it’s architected, and what platform it’s running on. nginx has far more overall features than Envoy as an edge reverse proxy, though many modern service oriented architectures don’t typically make use of them. Envoy also supports multiple configurations. We'll use these four components to create an Envoy Proxy configuration to match the NGINX configuration defined. With hundreds of developers now working on Envoy, the Envoy code base is moving forward at an unbelievable pace, and we’re excited to continue taking advantage of Envoy in Ambassador. This enables it to run in a single process but still achieve parallelism using every CPU available to it. In today’s cloud-centric world, business logic is commonly distributed into ephemeral microservices. We started by evaluating the different feature sets of the three proxies. It supports automatic discovery of services, metrics, tracing, and has Let’s Encrypt support out of the box. We also discovered the community around Envoy is unique, relative to HAProxy and NGINX. There are many other load balancers, so remember to evaluate the features you need and analyze performance based on your environment. Additionally, Envoy can be used as a service mesh proxy and an edge load balancer, a feature that other tools lack. Our Traefik configuration looks like this: Our cloud load balancer is the Amazon ALB, which is an HTTP (L7) cloud-based load balancer and reverse proxy. Matt Klein, creator of Envoy, explicitly decided that he would not start an Envoy platform company.
This may be a combination of factors: SSL libraries used by the load balancer, ciphers supported by the client and server, and other factors such as key length for some algorithms. And finally, we wanted a project that would align as closely as possible with our view of a L7-centric, microservices world. This in and of itself will affect the performance of our system, but gives us valuable forensic data and would normally be turned on in a production environment. When choosing a load balancer to front your application’s traffic, there are several factors to consider.
In all the data, we see a view of the client’s response times.
And while they weren’t at feature parity, we felt that we could, if we had to, implement any critical missing features in the proxy itself. Traefik stays more consistent under load than Nginx and HAProxy, but this may be mitigated by more optimized configuration of the other load balancers. With our other load balancers restricted to their out-of-the-box configuration, this might not seem fair, but we are evaluating these load balancers on features as well as performance, so ALB is included as a comparison point. This model is very fast for handling I/O bound workloads such as network traffic, but typically limits parallelism across multiple CPUs.
Additionally, this doesn’t test configurations that require many long-lived open connections such as websockets. Envoy also supports multiple configurations. While often less of a concern than these other factors, it’s still important to understand the performance profiles of these load balancers under different types of load. nginx [engine x] is an HTTP and reverse proxy server, as well as a mail proxy server, written by Igor Sysoev.
When your service exceeds an acceptable threshold, you can alert your team to investigate and take action.
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