Because of the size of the head, the neck is relatively short to provide better support. How do they acquire such impressive robustness on a diet of plants, in terrain where food can sometimes be scarce? As humans increase our food supply to meet the needs of our population, existing elephant habitat is turned into cropland and the elephants find themselves competing for resources with people. One of the biggest threats to elephant populations is the ivory trade, as the animals are poached for their ivory tusks. Often, these are only available seasonally.  The throat of an elephant appears to contain a pouch where it can store water for later use. This is a speed that rivals even the fastest humans. The tusks can weigh over 200 pounds.  At Chobe National Park, Botswana, herds travel 325 km (202 mi) to visit the river when the local waterholes dry up. A unique sphincter-like muscle around the ear canal constricts the passageway, thereby dampening acoustic signals and allowing the animal to hear more seismic signals. At the same time, the stegodontids, another proboscidean group descended from gomphotheres, spread throughout Asia, including the Indian subcontinent, China, southeast Asia, and Japan. A single tooth can be replaced as many as 6 times in an elephant’s life. The elephant’s ability to store fat and find sustenance is even more impressive when you consider that the food they eat is largely made up of cellulose.  One notable species of this epoch was Eritreum melakeghebrekristosi of the Horn of Africa, which may have been an ancestor to several later species. Teeth are not replaced by new ones emerging from the jaws vertically as in most mammals. It then leans back, using the weight of its body as extra power. Elephants purr like cats do, as a means of communication. "There are some anecdotal reports of 350 to 400 pounds and even an 1867 reference to 600 to 800 pounds for mules." They may add to the display by shaking their heads and snapping their ears, as well as throwing dust and vegetation. Asian and Indian elephants weigh a bit less.
, To support the animal's weight, an elephant's limbs are positioned more vertically under the body than in most other mammals.  As of 2000, around 1,200 Asian and 700 African elephants were kept in zoos and circuses.  Asian elephants have more muscle coordination and can perform more complex tasks. Large-scale cullings ceased in 1988, when Zimbabwe abandoned the practice. Dwarf elephants of uncertain descent lived in Crete, Cyclades, and Dodecanese while dwarf mammoths are known to have lived in Sardinia.
 The story of the blind men and an elephant teaches that reality can be observed from different perspectives. , The practice of working elephants has also been attempted in Africa. They can consume as much as 150 kg (330 lb) of food and 40 L (11 US gal) of water in a day. An Asian elephant has been observed modifying branches and using them as flyswatters. If the predator doesn't back down, the adults will charge and drive it way.  A cow in oestrus releases chemical signals (pheromones) in her urine and vaginal secretions to signal her readiness to mate.  Elephants tend to have high numbers of parasites, particularly nematodes, compared to other herbivores.
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