Assembly and component testing took place inside a workshop constructed over a railroad flatcar.
Internal exposure to radiation is the most serious chronic risk from fallout if food grown in contaminated areas is consumed. Alpha emitting heavy elements can be serious health risks also. The heat would still be high enough to vaporize sheet metal; found in cars and melt glass. Two factors act to limit the effective radiation exposure for genetic effects, one for acute exposures, the other for chronic exposures. Instead the damage is caused by the radiation breaking up other molecules and forming chemically reactive free radicals or unstable compounds. The time required to raise the value of k from 1 to the maximum value of 2 or so is called the reactivity insertion time, or simply insertion time. Surface bursts are useful if local fallout is desired, or if the blast is intended to destroy a buried or very hard structure like a missile silo or a dam. Alpha particles have a range of only a few centimeters in air, and cannot even penetrate skin. 500 rems received over a decade is thus as serious a risk as 500 rems received all at once, and 50 rems is one-tenth as bad as 500. They all share the same basic mechanism for causing injury though: the creation of chemically reactive compounds called "free radicals" that disrupt the normal chemistry of living cells. Then too, at this stage the fireball is only a few meters across. The 14.1 MeV neutron from the D+T reaction can however cause fission in U-238, which is used in the fission tamper. The formula for this is: Number of atoms split = 2^(n-1), where n is the generation number. 184.108.40.206.1 Acute Whole Body Exposure Effects. Credible deterrence through simple, effective protection against concentrated and dispersed invasions and aerial attacks. When exposure occurred during the last trimester, there was a marked increase in stillbirths and in elevated infant mortality during the first year of life. Assembling a critical mass by firing one piece of fissionable material at another is an obvious idea and was the first approach developed for designing atomic bombs. As Carey Sublette of the Nuclear Weapons … A large bomb cannot be manufactured using this method though because there are insufficient neutrons produced. This effect is caused by the absorption of sunlight when large amounts of soot are injected into the atmosphere by the widespread burning of cities and petroleum stocks destroyed in a nuclear attack. 600-1000 REMS If medically treated, all of the 60–180 rems group will survive. The fusion reactions used in bombs and prospective powerplant designs are simple, and extremely fast - which is essential since the fuel must be fully consumed within microseconds. A side-effect of the Pascal-B nuclear test during Operation Plumbbob may have resulted in the first man-made object launched into space. Soot is far more efficient in absorbing light than volcanic dust, and soot particles are small and hydrophobic and thus tend not to settle or wash out as easily. Thus the destructive radius increases with the square root of the yield (this is the familiar inverse square law of electromagnetic radiation).
Alphas can only cause injury if the emitting isotope is ingested. "Experimental Simulation of A-bomb Gamma-ray Spectra for Radiobiology Studies". Most of the tritium generated by fusion is consumed in the explosion but significant amounts survive. The primary ignition sources appear to be flames and pilot lights in heating appliances (furnaces, water heaters, stoves, ovens, etc.). Air is essentially transparent to thermal radiation.
This unit is the oldest of the three and is defined more the convenience of radiation measurement, than for interpreting the effects of radiation on living organisms. The capture of neutrons by nitrogen-14 also produces gammas, a process completed by 100 milliseconds.
 US examples are the W76 and W88 warheads, with the lower yield W76 being over twice as numerous as the W88 in the US nuclear arsenal. The rapid drop in temperature causes the thermal power to drop ten-fold, reaching a minimum in about 10 milliseconds for a 20 kt bomb (100 milliseconds for 1 Mt bomb). This shock wave is transmitted to the fissionable core and compresses it, raising the density to the point of supercriticality. The rule is accurate to 25% for the first two weeks, and is accurate to a factor of two for the first six months. Second, since the bomb exploded in bright daylight the eye pupil would be expected to be small. Sr-89 is an important hazard for a year or two after an explosion, but Sr-90 remains a hazard for centuries. Cesium-137 Radioactive isotopes are usually measured in terms of curies. However two caveats apply: 220.127.116.11.2 Acute Localized Tissue Exposure. Convenient scaling laws to allow calculation of burn effects for any yield are: Even more serious burns are possible, which have been classified as fourth (even fifth) degree burns. One sievert is roughly equal to 100 rems. The dynamic pressure is much less than the overpressure at blast intensities relevant for urban damage, although at 5 psi the wind speed is still 162 mph - close to the peak wind speeds of the most intense hurricanes. There are four types of ionizing radiation produced by nuclear explosions that can cause significant injury: neutrons, gamma rays, beta particles, and alpha particles.  The chief hazards are burns and eye injuries. Long term radiation exposure results from residing in a fallout contaminated area for an extended period (external exposure), consuming food produced in a contaminated area (internal exposure), or both. The neutrino energy effectively disappears; the unstable fission products release their decay energies at varying rates, some almost immediately. In the megaton range, the fireball rises so high that it enters the stratosphere. The importance of this effect is often overstated in the nuclear weapons literature however. The death and destruction wrought by these weapons was unprecedented and might have, in another world with another race of beings, ended the nuclear threat right then and there. Military equipment is generally designed to be resistant to EMP, but realistic tests are very difficult to perform and EMP protection rests on attention to detail. Andrei Sakharov's team at Arzamas-16, the "USSR's Los Alamos," skipped the careful mathematical analysis require for H-bomb design and worked out "Big Ivan" on the fly using approximations.
Acute radiation exposure during pregnancy can cause significant harm to the fetus. surrounding air molecules, causing chemical reactions that form a dense layer of "smog" tens of meters deep around the bomb. If the effect occurs at ground zero the ground range can be derived from slant range and burst altitude (Pythagorean theorem). Successive layers of shielding each reduce the intensity by the same proportion, so three tenth-value thickness reduce the intensity to one-thousandth (a tenth-value thickness is about 3.3 half-value thicknesses). Studies done on the total effect of nuclear blasts on the ozone layer have been at least tentatively exonerating after initial discouraging findings.. Pattison, J.E., Hugtenburg, R.P., Beddoe, A.H., and Charles, M.W. Onset of initial symptoms is 15-30 minutes, last a day or two, and are followed by a latency period of 5-10 days. The overpressure estimated to damage lungs is about 70 kPa. A series of large atmospheric explosions could significantly deplete the ozone layer. The Tambora eruption of 1815 (the largest volcanic eruption in recent history) was followed by "the year without summer" in 1816, the coldest year in the last few centuries. The possibility of permanent sterility in females begins to appear. For an explosion in the atmosphere, the fireball quickly expands to maximum size, and then begins to cool as it rises like a balloon through buoyancy in the surrounding air. Robert Hermes and William Strickfaden, 2005, Learn how and when to remove this template message, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles, Effects of nuclear explosions on human health, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Visual depictions of nuclear explosions in fiction, "Nuclear Explosions: Weapons, Improvised Nuclear Devices", http://www.remm.nlm.gov/RemmMockup_files/radiationlethality.jpg, "Ignition of the Atmosphere with Nuclear Bombs", "The Soviet Weapons Program - The Tsar Bomba", "Military Effects Studies on Operation CASTLE", "The Mach Stem – Effects of Nuclear Weapons – atomicarchive.com", "Medical Effects Of Atomic Bombs The Report Of The Joint Commission For The Investigation Of The Effects Of The Atomic Bomb In Japan Volume 1", Modeling the Effects of Nuclear Weapons in an Urban Setting, Glasstone & Dolan (1977) Thermal effects Chapter, "Damage by the Heat Rays/Shadow Imprinted on an Electric Pole", "The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki", "Glasstone & Dolan 1977 Thermal effects Chapter", "Credible effects of nuclear weapons for real-world peace: peace through tested, proved and practical declassified deterrence and countermeasures against collateral damage. This is highly dependent on factors such as if one is indoors or out, the size of the explosion, the proximity to the explosion, and to a lesser degree the direction of the wind carrying fallout. This is called "time absorption" since it has the same effect as a neutron absorber with a cross-section inversely proportional to velocity.  This constructive interference is the phenomenon responsible for the bumps or 'knees' in the above overpressure range graph.
The complete suppression of fire fighting efforts is extremely important. The repair is not perfect however. Iodine-131 is a beta and gamma emitter with a half-life of 8.07 days (specific activity 124,000 curies/g) Its decay energy is 970 KeV; usually divided between 606 KeV beta, 364 KeV gamma. For comparison, only about 1.2 tonnes of C-14 naturally exists, divided between the atmosphere (1 tonne) and living matter (0.2 tonne). Due to carbon exchange between the atmosphere and oceans, the half-life of C-14 residing in the atmosphere is only about 6 years. Eye tissue exposed to radiation shows an increased incidence of cataracts at dose levels below which most tissues show increased cancer rates. Remaining indoors, wearing substantial clothing, and decontamination by washing can prevent this type of exposure. It comprises some 3-3.5% of total fission products - 200 curies/kt. Above 1000 REMS Another approach for increasing efficiency is reducing the rate of expansion through better confinement of the critical mass. If a still bigger bomb is desired, then the explosion of the fusion secondary can be used to compress and explode a larger third stage.
Like Russia's gigantic Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon, this would be the Tsar Bomb. The table below indicates the amount of thermal radiation required to cause different levels of injury, and the maximum ranges at which they occur, for different yields of bombs. A retinal burn resulting in permanent damage from scarring is also caused by the concentration of direct thermal energy on the retina by the lens. With a 1 Mt bomb, they remain significant out to the 2 psi overpressure zone (5 miles). Unauthorized host sites are expressly forbidden. At intermediate altitudes the air absorbs these rays fairly uniformly and does not generate long range electromagnetic disturbances. The gigantic weapon—over 26 feet long, nearly seven feet in diameter and 27 tons mass—was designed, engineered and fabricated all at once. From the.
A convenient rule of thumb for estimating the short-term fatalities from all causes due to a nuclear attack is to count everyone inside the 5 psi blast overpressure contour around the hypocenter as a fatality. This may be due to any of several causes: prolonged residence in areas contaminated by early fallout; exposure to delayed (stratospheric) fallout; exposure to radioisotopes absorbed by the body. Careful selection of the burst altitudes and locations can produce an extremely effective radar-blanking effect..
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