doi: 10.1029/2010GC003318, Barbieri, R., Ori, G. G., and Cavalazzi, B. As cold seeps are renowned for supporting greater productivity in comparison to many other deep-sea environments, an apparent explanation for the occurrence of such a large colony of serpulids within a deep-sea cold seep is that its formation is related to productivity from seepage. (2006). The raw radiocarbon ages were then converted to calibrated calendar ages (cal yr B.P.) The seafloor lineation that is interpreted as the approximate trace of the San Pedro Basin fault (Ryan et al., 2012) runs very close (∼50 m) to the eastern edge of Fossil Hill (Figure 1B). J. Mar. 4:342. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00342, Andersen, M. B., Stirling, C. H., Zimmermann, B., and Halliday, A. N. (2010). Size (25.4 mm = 1 inch): 44 mm long on a 75 mm by 68 mm matrix . Geology of the continental margin beneath Santa Monica Bay, Southern California, from seismic-reflection data. Deep-sea serpulid genera include Bathyvermilia, Neovermilia and Laminatubus, and the occurrence of the Fossil Hill tubes in deep water, their presence in great numbers, as well as and the undulating keel observed on the larger tube fragments from Fossil Hill, are features more consistent with genera such as Neovermilia and Laminatubus which can also have similar keels and can occur in vast numbers at deep-sea sites of organic enrichment (E. Kupriyanova pers.
(A) Large carbonate slabs on the edge of large pockmark structure (Figure 1C) which appear to be sliding into the hole (hole is to the left in the image). These were cleaned to ensure removal of attached debris and mineralization using the following technique: cleaning using paintbrush and fresh water, placement in an ultrasonic bath for 5 min, suspension in weak hydrochloric acid (0.25 N HCl) for 2 min, placement in distilled water in an ultrasonic bath for 5 min, drying in an oven at 50°C for ∼1 h. Radiocarbon measurements were obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS) facility, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA, United States. Prog.
A silurian cold-seep ecosystem from the middle atlas. The outer tube walls exhibited a texture of closely spaced, fine transverse wrinkles or growth-lines, that were more obvious in a subset of the tubes, and also appeared to be present in the tube layer below the outermost (Figure 7D).
Zool. 102, 2300–2312.
55, 552–570. Crémière, A., Lepland, A., Chand, S., Sahy, D., Condon, D. J., Noble, S. R., et al. doi: 10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00323-9, Goffredi, S., and Barry, J. McLean, J. H. (1984). Methane hydrates and global climate. doi: 10.1669/0883-1351(2004)019<0527:ASCEFT>2.0.CO;2. All datasets generated for this study are included in the manuscript and/or the Supplementary Files. Syst. The benthic gastropods in the Fossil Hill samples (Supplementary Table S4) are a mixture of taxa occurring at other methane seep sites to the north and south, including the peltospirid Depressigyra sp. Nevertheless, a number of tube characteristics can be helpful such as tube aggregation, coiling/curving, attachment to substrate and external sculpture (see Ippolitov et al., 2014). Therefore, the proximity of fossil serpulid tube facies to the San Pedro Basin Fault may indicate an association between this facies and fault activity.
Change ). The location of the sampling site northeast of Fossil Hill (DR631) is also shown. These areas were further explored during two ROV diving cruises of the R/V Western Flyer in May 2013 and June 2014. (2015). B Biol. Mar.
More information: Kupriyanova, E.K., Ippolitov, A.P.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Based on this approach we estimate the age of tube-associated authigenic carbonates recovered during dives DR626-630 to be around 17–30 ka (Table 2). Fossils 84, 77–85. doi: 10.4202/app.00472.2018, Krylova, E. M., and Sahling, H. (2010). This study was provided by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation via the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mar. Museum and Rare Fossils Sci. Mar. (A) Map of California showing the location of the Santa Monica Bay area, red box shows area pictured in B. (2018). The black dots within these tracks represent individual vibracore locations, with start, and end vibracore numbers labeled. This fossil is middle Jurassic in age. (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.1986.tb00205.x, Videtich, P. E. (1986). The curved shape of the apertures of many of the Paralepetopsis sp. Annotations on cores show core depths in meters, and sediment refers to fine-grained hemipelagic sediment. doi: 10.1029/GM112p0127. 9:83. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-02550-9, Warén, A., and Bouchet, P. (1993). Ser. This was evident in the orientation of some the tubes in Figure 4F. Sci., 19 March 2019 Pol. Indicators of methane-derived carbonates and chemosynthetic organic carbon deposits: examples from the Florida Escarpment. Geophys. Geol. (2011). Indications of the local reworking of the Fossil Hill deposit, and the presence of living bivalves in depressions (e.g., Figure 4E), appear to disrupt stratigraphic order at the site, and hence make it difficult to derive age relationships from stratigraphy. (2016), as well as additional mollusk identifications. RARE Serpulid Worm Tube.
We suggest that the serpulid tube facies formed in situ, and that the vast aggregation of these tubes at Fossil Hill is likely due to a combination of optimal physical environmental conditions and chemosynthetic production, which may have been particularly intense as a result of sea-level lowstand during the Last Glacial Maximum.
CALIB 7.1 [WWW program]. (G) Nucula carlottensis, left valve external view, DR627 R-2, SEM, and scale bar is 1 mm. Museum Nat. Given the size of the samples, such age variation most likely results from some degree of open system behavior through U loss. The Vent, and Seep Biota: Aspects from Microbes to Ecosystems, Vol. (1977). The tubes either occurred singly, or more commonly as two or more attached to each other along a longitudinal edge (Figures 7A,B). (2016). Figure 6. Fossil Code: CB045. 7:11509. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11509, Dubilier, N., Bergin, C., and Lott, C. (2008). Some believe the Ediacaran genus Cloudina may Detailed AUV surveys in combination with extensive ROV sampling have revealed the existence of a massive serpulid paleo-colony dominated by ∼20 cal ka BP tubeworms off southern California. In addition, encrusting organisms were present on some of the samples, including bryozoans (Schizoporella species), small serpulids and sponges. Assoc. Timescales of methane seepage on the Norwegian margin following collapse of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Scr. Many of the Fossil Hill samples contained dead benthic mollusk shells in addition to the serpulid tubes (Supplementary Table S4). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. doi: 10.1023/A:1014571916818, Stuiver, M., and Polach, H. A. Results indicate that the tubes were most likely made by a deep-sea serpulid lineage, with radiocarbon dating suggesting that they have a very recent origin during the Late Pleistocene, specifically to the Last Glacial Maximum ∼20,000 years ago. l (2008) have hypothesized hydrate formation as a mechanism for mound uplift, while the proximity of some of the mounds to the trajectory of the San Pedro Basin fault system (Ryan et al., 2012) suggests that their formation may be associated with fault activity (Fisher et al., 2003; Gardner et al., 2003). Hydrobiologia 496, 371–383.
A reservoir age of 1750 year was applied to the worm tubes and mollusks following Mix et al. Thus, these Late Pleistocene radiocarbon ages should be treated as a maximum due to potential addition of old carbon effects outlined earlier. Studying the fossil record of tubeworms can provide an invaluable tool for calibration of molecular clocks not only in serpulids, but by extrapolation also in other annelid groups that lack a fossil record. Am. (2004). While there appears to have been active seepage at the Fossil Hill mound during 20–16 ka and 7 ka from MDAC cements (Table 2), we cannot at present determine if it was continuous, therefore the possibility exists that the serpulids may have become locally extinct at Fossil Hill during substantial periods of seepage quiescence. 4, 37–41. Am. Variability of stable isotope fingerprints of the serpulid Ficopomatus enigmaticus within a permanently stratified estuary: implications for (palaeo)environmental interpretations.
Gas hydrate dissociation off Svalbard induced by isostatic rebound rather than global warming. Paull et al.
Biodiversity on the rocks: macrofauna inhabiting authigenic carbonate at costa rica methane seeps. Methanogenic calcite, 13C-depleted bivalve shells, and gas hydrate from a mud volcano offshore southern California. Many of the tubes also contained a single distinct undulating keel on their outer surfaces (Figures 7A,E), as well as peristomes, or occasional thickenings of short transverse sections of the tube wall (Figure 7F). MG gratefully acknowledges funding from NERC grants NE/K500847/1 and NE/R000670/1. (2003). ten Hove, H., and Zibrowius, H. (1986). Manag. Figure 3. The serpulids are often known However, the over 100 m sea-level drop during the LGM likely caused the methane hydrate stability conditions to shift enough for methane hydrate in near-seafloor sediments to decompose, and for methane to be released from sediments. While other mounds off the Californian coast were generally not found to harbor large abundances of fossil serpulids, serpulid tubes similar to those of Fossil Hill were recovered at the two additional authigenic carbonate outcrops along the approximate trajectory of the San Pedro Basin Fault sampled during dives DR630 and DR631 (Figure 1).
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